Africa Essay Research Paper Africa in General

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Africa Essay, Research Paper Africa in General And Madagascar Africa, until the middle to late nineteenth century was known as The Dark Continent. The reason for this reputation was that at the time no outsider was able to go in land of the big continent and see the diversity and the complexity of it. . The first impression the European got was what they saw that the coastal areas of Africa and took this impression back to their countries and labeled the continent as being dark, not only because the encounter they had with dark skinned people also because of their ignorance. Africa can be looked at in several different ways, such as climate, ethnicity, history, languages, vegetation, natural resources, physical feature, and religions. First, Africa has five main climate

regions: tropical rain forests, mediterranean, savanna, steppe, and desert. It also has small regions of highland, marine, and subtropical. Second, the vegetation varies depending on the climate area. In desert regions it is mostly barren but does have small amount of vegetation, which has adapted to a limited supply of water. Tropical rain forest usually has three layers of trees; all of which are broadleaf evergreens. They also have a variety of small ferns, vines, and shrubs. In the mediterranean environment there are evergreen trees mixed with coniferous and broadleaf trees. Oaks, pines, and small shrubs also are common. There are two types of savanna, woodland that has tall tress and perennial grasses and grassland, which consists of low growing deciduous, evergreen, and

shrubbery. Grassland savanna also have many species of bear thorn shrubbery and the grasses are almost barren. Depending on the area, Africa’s cash crop consists of coffee, gum, rubber, tobacco, cocoa, grapes, ground nuts, sugar, citrus, cotton, oil palm, and tea. Then we can say that the climatic region determines what vegetation, cash crop or natural can survive where. Generally speaking however Africa’s natural resources are consistent through out the continent. They range from coal, natural gas, petroleum, diamonds, and iron ore, to salt. There are also many other resources but they are not as common through out Africa. Fourth, Africa has changing physical features but it is mostly dominated by lowland. It also has many scattered basins, plateaus and some mountains.

Unfortunately, over fifty percent of Africa has inadequate rain fall. On the other hand about ninety percent of Africa has severe climate contrasts, either too much or too little rain (AFIM). Africa’s ethnic groups and its languages fall hand to hand. In northern Africa there are only five ethnic groups such as Arab, Nubian, and Berber. Similarly, two of the three languages spoken are Arabic and Berber. Western Africa has more than 30 ethnic groups and at leas as many languages. Easter Africa has over twenty-five ethnic groups as such as Arab and Kikuyu and languages such as Somali and Cewa. Central Africa has over twenty ethnic groups, like Kuyu and Teke and languages such as Luba and Sango. Southern Africa has over 25 ethnic groups as Zulu and Shona and languages as Shono,

Zulu and Lozi. Although Africa is full of all of these indigenous languages it was colonized by Europeans and the official languages such as Arabic, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Religiously speaking, Africa has three main religions, those being Christianity, Islam and indigenous religions (AFIM). Africa has three main historical periods: pre-colonial, colonial, and period of African Independence. Pre-colonial Africa was from 2900bc to 1885, which was most of Africa’s history. 1885 was the year that European nations start to colonize Africa and claim it as their own. The colonial period lasted from 1885 to 1960. It was in this period in which European nations had control over all of Africa except Ethiopia and Liberia. It was starting from 1960, many African nations