Afghanistan Essay Research Paper The King was — страница 2

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policies of the Khalqi leaders. The mass imprisonments and indiscriminate executions, outraged the population. Many soldiers took their arms join the resistance (Clifford pg. 100) Finally, in December 1979, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan and overthrew Amin, who was later executed. Karmal was installed as the new leader. He faced a divided party, and Mujahideen were split into many different groups. They appreciated the DU.S. Stinger ground-to-air missiles. In 1985, seven of the major Sunni groups based in the Peshawar region formed an alliance called the Ittehad-i-Islami-Afghan Mujahideen. In 1987 an eight group alliance brought together Shiite Afghan groups based in Iran as the Islamic Coalition Council of Afghanistan. Karmal government to control the attack of the

Mujahideen, tried to close of the Pakistan border. They bombed villages, attacked Mujahideen. Raiding and bombing became common. Foster (pg. 62) mentions, “the Soviets claimed that they had 1000,000 troops in Afghanistan, but the West estimated the number to be closer to 115,000. They fought a high-tech war with only limited support by the Afghan army. On the other hand, mujahideen, who numbered about 100,000, fought a primitive war with emphasis on guerrilla tactics. Yet mujahideen were the first group of fighters to drive out a Russian army since Peter the Great, tsar of Russia, began the southward expansion of His empire three hundred years earlier.” Karmal oust and Najibbullah came in power until April 1992 Najibulla forced out and mujahideen moved into Kabul. It can only

be hoped that Afghanistan can regain some stability so that the country can recover from the fighting that has gone on for so many years. An entire generation of Afghans spend their lives in war. The PDPA was a Marxist-oriented party which two years after its founding in January 1965 split into tow factions Khalq (Masses) and Parcham (Banner). Khalq’s followers were primarily Pashtuns recruited from the non-elite class led by Taraki, and the more moderate Parcham headed by Karmal. Khalq’s followers were primarily Pashtuns recruited form the non-elite classes. Parcham’s adherents included other ethnic groups and tended to come from the Westernized upper classes. The two factions agreed in 1977 to reunite as a single PDPA. As soon the party became in power, Khalqis, Khalqis,

having a strong following in the military, initiated a purge of Parchamis. Many Parchamis after the plot in the summer of 1978, were thrown in prison and tortured. Its leaders, such as Karmal, were sent abroad as ambassadors, and remained in exile. Amin murdered Taraki ThePDPA adhered to the Soviet model of revolution, and its leaders in both Khalq and Parcham had close ties with Moscow’s police. The Soviets were probably involved in the September 1979 attempt to remove Amin. Karmel returned. Millions had fled to Pakistan or Iran to escape what they perceived as an intolerable situation under Soviet rule. Resistance forces in the mid-1980s reflected the divisions and diversity of Afghan society. Most mujahideen unified but also divided by their allegiance to Islamic values and

hostility to the atheistic Soviet invader. The short story took place in a Pushton small community where the Pashun code- Pashtunwali was strongly guarded. Revenge. To one degree or another every mujahid has a grudge; loss of kin, loss of property, personal injury, eviction form the land of the lineage and its ancestors, torture, and related grievances not only justify acts of revenge but also make them a matter of family and personal honor.