Affrimative Action Essay Research Paper Affirmative ActionThe — страница 3

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against on the basis of race when the University accepted less qualified black and Mexican American applicants for admission through the use of a quota system. The U.S. 5th Circuit Court of Appeals, which has jurisdiction in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi, ruled that the University of Texas may not use race as a factor when admitting students, and the Supreme Court held up the opinion by denying a writ of certiorari. This monumental decision accelerated Affirmative Action’s journey towards extinction in higher education. In California, there is an ongoing debate concerning Proposition 209, which prohibits the state, local governments, districts, public universities, colleges, schools, and other government instrumentalities from discriminating against or giving preferential

treatment to any individual or group in public employment, public education, or public contracting on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin. It was passed by the California electorate by a 54-46 percent vote on November 5, 1996. It is now Article I, Section 31 of the California Constitution. On November 3, 1997, the U.S. Supreme Court denied certiorari in the case, letting stand the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decision of April, 1997 which strongly upholds the constitutionality of the measure. Advocates of Affirmative Action defend it fervently, they claim it levels the playing field, at times even making it out to be a racial panacea. Discrimination still exists, they maintain, and must be remedied. In 1990, the average black male worker earned

$731 for every $1,000 earned by a white male worker, and although white males make up only 43% of the workforce, they occupy 97% of the top executive positions at America’s 1,500 largest corporations. Affirmative Action programs are designed to ensure fair criteria for all applicants. Currently, 86% of available jobs are not advertised, they are filled by word-of-mouth. Since white men still own and manage most US businesses, they tend to know and hire other white male applicants. Something needs to be done to remedy this situation. Critics maintain that Affirmative Action is reverse discrimination, and violates the Fourteenth Amendment, which forbids preferential treatment to a group based on race. They believe that Affirmative Action promotes the hiring of unqualified

workers, and sometimes forces employers to choose the best of the minority workers they can find, regardless of whether they have the required job skills. In 1988 Duke University adopted a resolution requiring each department to hire at least one new black for a faculty position by 1993. Only six blacks received Ph.D.s in mathematics in 1987 in all of the U.S., forcing the University to hire a less-qualified professor. Affirmative Action is blamed for lowering standards, some colleges lower their standards by as much as 300 SAT points. The lowered standards detrimentally affects the overall quality of the education, disturbing the learning of the Affirmative Action students, as well as the normal students. Affirmative Action places a stigma on groups that receive preferential

treatment. Consider an employer who hires a member of a minority group for a high position on the basis of merit, other employees however, are likely to assume that it was an Affirmative Action hiring, and the individual is not qualified. Affirmative Action causes minorities to feel inadequate, that they need assistance and cannot achieve their goals on their own. Minorities are encouraged to work less and idle, allowing them leeway that can be readily abused. In the past few months I have reviewed an immense amount of information in order to write this paper. I have tried to remain as impartial as possible, but I have not been able to avoid forming opinions regarding this subject. In the 1960’s a device was needed to help curb the racism that was so rampant, and sensitize the

public to the plight of minorities. Affirmative Action did just that, opening up many opportunities for the people that had been previously denied chances to prosper. Affirmative Action was an essential part of the desegregation that occurred thirty years ago, but it has become outdated and it is not the solution anymore. It was a temporary plan to improve the conditions for minorities, but it is now more of a hindrance than a help. Affirmative Action lowers standards, causes unqualified workers to be hired, places a stigma on minorities, lowers their confidence, and gives them the opportunity and encouragement to idle. Affirmative Action has not been fulfilling it’s goal of assisting lower income minorities with a history of discrimination, but has mostly been exploited by