Afas Literature Essay Research Paper Unlike the — страница 2

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homosexuality and in 1953, he wrote his famous novel go tell it to the mountain. Which was an account of his youthful age. In 1960 he returned to the United Stated and became politically active in support of civil rights. He spoke out in interview and gave speeches regarding racial justice. His novel nobody knows my name gave him an edge in civil rights movements. Baldwin wrote novels, poetry, essays and a screenplay in the later years of his life. He died of stomach cancer in December 1987 at his home in St. Paul de Vence, France. Jean Toomer Jean Toomer was born as Nathan Pinchback Toomer into an upper class Negro family in Washington D.C. on December 26, 1894. Toomer’s grandfather, Pinckney B. S. Pinchback, was the son of a white plantation owner, a former slave of mixed

race, possibly including African and Native American blood. Shortly after his birth, his Caucasian father deserted him and his mom because of money crises. His mom Nina gave him Nathan Eugene, which he later shortened to Jean. Jean attended Garnet School, an elementary school for black students. At age Ten in 1905 Toomer experienced a year of illnesses that put him behind in school and toppled him from the leadership position among his neighborhood buddies. Toomer was a child that ruled the neighborhood gang at a young age. He was stricken with severe stomach. In 1909 he moved to New York with his mom and his new dad. After the death of his mom he moved back to Washington. In 1910 he enrolled in Dunbar High School. Jean studied at five different higher educations in a period of

four years. During his search for colleges, he was not sure if he should classify himself as white, but he feared racial discrimination. He studied agriculture in Wisconsin but later quit Wisconsin after a semester. He later moved between New York City, Chicago, and Washington D.C. In New York he lived of his grand parents, which he could only do for so long. In 1923 he published the book cane with the help of Waldo Frank. His rejection of race classification is “thought to have stemmed largely from his commitment to art and to his idea of a “new American” race”. In 1931 he married Margery Latimer and settled in California in his marriage certificate he classified himself as white. Toomer was really confused about his race and was not willing to come down to the racial

discrimination of that time. Toomer later began “experiencing physical ailments, particularly digestive difficulty and abdominal pains. He tried to address the problem through diet and psychoanalysis, but throughout the 1950s the complications simply worsened; other physical problems gradually attacked him as well”. He later moved into a nursing home in 1965, and died two years later on March 30th. Frantz Fanon Frantz Fanon was born in 1925, to a middle-class family in the French colony of Martinique. He moved out of Martinique and volunteered to fight with the Free French in World War II. He later started writing political essays and plays, and married a French woman, Jose Duble. Before he left France, he published an article that deals with racism and colonization titled

Black Skin White Mask. The book was part analysis because it deals with his personal experience and colonized relationship. Because Fanon studied and was colonized in France, he conceived of himself as French because of his background. Fanon believed that the French associated blackness with evil and sin, and in an “attempt to escape the association of blackness with evil, the black man dons a white mask”. I think he was referring to him self when he was discussing this issue. Because he grew up in France he felt that way. He thinks that black or white do not exists without the other. In 1953, Fanon became Head of the Psychiatry Department at the “Blida-Joinville Hospital in Algeria, where he instituted reform in patient care and desegregated the wards”. In 1956 he

resigned his post with the French government to work for the Algerian cause. Fanon later fled to Tunisia and began working openly with the Algerian independence movement. He not only saw patients, he wrote about the movement for a number of publications. Fanon survived several political murder attempts, but finally he died of leukemia in Washington, DC, on December 12, 1961. Chinua Achebe Albert Chinualumogu Achebe, which was the name he was given by his parents, was born the son of Isaiah Okafo, a Christian churchman, and Janet N. Achebe on November 16, 1930 in Ogidi, Nigeria. Chinua Achebe schooled at Government College, Umuahia before earning an undergraduate degree from University College, Ibadan. He was in the Biafran government service during the Nigerian Civil War. He