Advertising — страница 9

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and economical, in foreign markets. Therefore, the company may need to alter its media strategy. Foreign consumers may not want to buy, or be able to buy, the same products (or product concepts). They may have different motivations and buying habits. Therefore, the advertiser may need to alter the advertising message and possibly even the product concept. In this section, we discuss these three Ms of advertising strategy—markets (audiences), media, and messages—and their relationship to international advertising and the products marketed abroad. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Courtland L. Bovee, William F. Arens, "Contemporary Advertising", Boston, 1992. 2. David J. Rachman, Michael H. Rlescon, "Business Today", Boston, 1990. 3. Danielle Gibson, "Fundamental of

Management", 1991. 4. "Encyclopedia", U.S. Pat. &T.M. Off. Marka Registrar, 1994. 5. "The English Speaking World", Terra, 1995. 6. J. R. Evans, Barry Berman, "Marketing", New York, London, 1986. 7. I. Gibson, James L. Ivancevich, John M., "Managment", Boston, 1992. 8. Heinz Weihrich, Harold Koontz, "Management. A Global Perspective", New York, 1993. 9. Joseph E. Kolet, "Primer on. Wage & Hour Laws", Washington, 1970. 10. I. Kinner, Thomas C., "Marketing -Managment", Boston, 1993. 11. KynpMaHosa H.C., "A Book of Britain", JlbBie, 1978. 12. M. Registered, "World Book", England, 1994. 13. Stanley B. Block, Geoffrey A. Hirt, "Foundations of Financial Management", Homewood,

Boston, 1992. 14. Stanley B. Block, "Foundation of Financial Management", 1981. 15. Thomas W. Knowles, "Management Science. Building and Using Models", Homewood, Illinois,1989. Finally Local advertising is referred to as retail advertising because it is commonly performed by retail stores. However, retail advertising is not necessarily local - it can be regional or national as well, as the volume of commercials run by national retail firms such as sears and J.C.Penney. Moreover, many businesses not usually thought of as retail stores use local advertising - real estate brokers, banks, movie theaters, auto mechanics, and TV stations, restaurants, museums, and even funeral homes. Local businesses of all types often use public service or issue advertising.

Businesses in each of these categories have different advertising goes and approaches. Local advertising is very important because most sales are made or lost locally. A national auto manufacturer may spend millions advertising new cars, but its nationwide network of local auto dealers spend just as much or more on a combined basis to bring customers into their showrooms to buy the cars. In fact, if the dealers don't make a strong effort on the locallevel, the effort of national advertisers may be wasted. So when it comes to consummating the sale, local advertising is where the actions is. The basic principles used by national advertisers are also applicable to local advertising, but local advertisers have special problems that stem from the simple, practical realities of

marketing in a local area.] Public relations (PR) is a term that is widely misunderstood and misused to describe anything from selling to hosting, when in fact it is a very specific communications process. Every company, organization, association, and government or says. They might be employees, customers, stockholders, competitors, suppliers, or Just the general population of consumers Today, advertising is used worldwide to sell ideas, policies, and attitudes as well as products. From Procter & Gamble in Cincinnati to Fiat in Turin, Italy, major marketers believe in international advertising, and they back their convictions with sizable advertising budgets. As Exhibit 19-2 shows, the top 10 worldwide advertisers are based in many different countries. 1