Advertising — страница 7

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("What to do if he hands you a line"), and to parents who have put off talking to their children about drugs ("If everybody says it can't happen to their kids, then whose kids is it happening to?"). The effort is being billed as the "largest and most ambitious private-sector, voluntary peacetime effort ever undertaken." Believing that the United States cannot succeed as a drug culture and that advertising can "demoralize" drug use, the organization wants nothing less than a drug-free America. Not all public service advertising is done on such a massive scale. We see advertisements daily for intangible humanitarian social causes (Red Cross), political ideas or issues (political candidates), philosophical or religious positions (Church of

Latter Day Saints), or particular attitudes and viewpoints (labor unions). In most cases, these advertisements are created and placed by nonprofit organizations, and the product they advertise is their particular mission in life, be it politics, welfare, religion, conservation, health, art, happiness, or love. Research conducted by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America proves that noncommercial advertising does change consumer attitudes. Specifically, the coalition's ads have changed attitudes about drug use. Thus, by providing information to the public on issues such as health, safety, education, and the environment, noncommercial advertising helps build a better society. Public service announcements emphasizing the dangers of unsafe sex and drunk driving and those stressing

the virtues of recycling and continuing education demonstrate that noncommercial advertising can help to enhance the quality of life. 3.2 TYPES OF NONCOMMERCIAL ADVERTISING One way to categorize the various types of noncommercial advertising is by the organizations that use them. For instance, advertising is used by churches, schools, universities, charitable organizations, and many other nonbusiness institutions. We also see advertising by associations, such as labor groups, professional organizations, and trade and civic associations. In addition, we witness millions of dollars' worth of advertising placed ^government organizations: the U.S. Army, Navy, Marine, Corps, and Postal Service; the Social Security Administration; the Internal Revenue Service; and various state

chambers of commerce. In addition, in election years we are bombarded with all sorts of political advertising that qualifies as noncommercial. The Advertising Council Most of the national PSAs you see on television have been placed there by the Advertising Council, a private, nonprofit organization that links noncommercial campaign sponsors with ad agencies. The sponsors pay for production costs, while the ad agencies donate their creative services. 3.3 ADVERTISING COUNCIL The Ad Council's policy today is basically the same as when it began during World War II: "Accept no subsidy from government and remain independent of it. Conduct campaigns of service to the nation at large, avoiding regional, sectarian, or special-interest drives of all kinds. Remain nonpanisan and

nonpolitical. Conduct the Council on a voluntary basis. Accept no project that does not lend itself to the advertising method. Accept no campaign with a commercial interest unless the public interest is obviously over riding." Among familiar campaigns created by the Ad Council are those for the United Negro College Fund ("A mind is a terrible thing to waste"); child abuse prevention ("Help destroy a family tradition"); the United Way ("It works for all of us"); crime prevention ("Take a bite out of crime"); and the U.S. Department of Transportation ("Drinking and driving can kill a friendship"). Exhibit 18-17 shows frames from an Ad Council commercial that advocates a healthy diet. The Ad Council's two longest-running

campaigns are those for the American Red Cross and forest fire prevention. According to the Ad Council's research, the number of forest fires has been cut in half over the life of the Smokey Bear campaign.29 The council is currently playing a role in overseeing the Partnership for a Drug-Free America effort. CHAPTER 3 "INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING" 1. GROWTH AND STATUS OF INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING In this text, we have discussed marketing and advertising planning, advertising creativity, and the advertising media. We have also offered overall advertising perspectives and focused on some special types of advertising, However, most of this discussion has centered on advertising as practiced in the United States and Canada. The question arises, therefore, as to how well such