Advertising — страница 2

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merchandise, usually on a nonexclusive basis ( such as department stores ). * Specialty businesses and services ( such as music stores, shoe repairshops, florists, hair salons, travel agencies ). Businesses in each of these categories have different advertising goes and approaches. Local advertising is very important because most sales are made or lost locally. A national auto manufacturer may spend millions advertising new cars, but its nationwide network of local auto dealers spend just as much or more on a combined basis to bring customers into their showrooms to buy the cars. In fact, if the dealers don't make a strong effort on the locallevel, the effort of national advertisers may be wasted. So when it comes to consummating the sale, local advertising is where the actions

is. The basic principles used by national advertisers are also applicable to local advertising, but local advertisers have special problems that stem from the simple, practical realities of marketing in a local area. Local and national advertisers differ in basic objectives and strategies, perceived needs of the marketplace, amount of money available to spend on advertising, greater emphasis by local advertisers, on newspaper advertising, use of price as a buying inducement, and the use of specialized help in preparing advertisements. 1.1 TYPES OF LOCAL ADVERTISING The two major types of local advertising are produce and institutional. As its name implies product advertising is designed to sell a specific product or service and to get immediate action institutional advertising,

on the other hand, attempts to obtain favorable attention for the business as a whole not for a specific product or service the store or business sells. The effects of institutional advertising are intended to be long term rather than short rang. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF LOCAL ADVERTISING The objectives of local advertising differ from the objectives of national advertising in both emphasis and time. National manufacturers tend to emphasize long-term objectives of awareness, image, and credibility. On the local, retail level, the advertiser's needs tend to be more immediate, as shown in the checklist of Local Advertising Objectives. The emphasis is on keeping the cash register ringing - increasing traffic, turning over inventory, and bringing in new customers among other things. As a

result on the local level, there are constant promotions, sales and clearances, all designed to create immediate activity. The trade-off, of course, is that the day after the promotions or sale the traffic may drop. So to increase traffic again, the merchant may plan another sale or another promotion. Then another and another. This can result in a cycle of sporadic bursts of activity followed by inactivity, sharp peaks and valleys in sales, and the image of a business that should be visited only during a sale. Long-term and short-term objectives work against each other when one is sought at the expense of the other. Successful local advertisers must there fore think of long-term objectives first and then develop short-term goals to help achieve their long-term objectives. This

usually increases the emphasis on institutional and regular price-line advertising, improves customer service, and reduces the reliance on sales and clearances for creating traffic. 1.3 PLANNING THE ADVERTISING EFFORT The key to success in any advertising program, local or national, is adequate planning. Planning is not a one-time occurrence, however, but a continuous process of research evaluation, decision, execution, and review. On the local level, more advertising dollars are wasted because of inadequate planning than for any other reason. The success of Rebio's was due to the fact that Ralf Rubio made planning a continuous, flexible process that allowed for change, improvement, new facts, and new ideas. Several steps are involved in planning the local advertising effort:

analyzing the local market and the competition, conducting adequate research, determining objectives and strategy, establishing a realistic budget, and planning media strategy. However the small advertiser will often profit from a bottom-up planning approach. Rubio's success, for example, can be attributed to his starting with a tactic- the fish taco- and then building a complete strategy around it, from the bottom up. 1.4 CREATING THE LOCAL ADVERTISING One of the most competitive businesses in any local market is the grocery business. Characterized by high overhead, low profit margins, heavy discounting, constant promotion, and miser doses of advertising, food retailing is a difficult and highly competitive business at best. The Tom Thumb Page grocery stores in Dallas had an