Advancements In Telecommunications Essay Research Paper Today — страница 2

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his assistant, Thomas Watson . This alternative to written communication rapidly helped the telephone become the world?s most important communication tool. By 1866 the first successful attempt to link Europe and America by undersea cable had been accomplished. This cable was capable of carrying telegraph data only . The telephone today remains a vital tool, and like the telegraph, the telephone is constantly being improved by modern technology . By 1900, the goal of communication technologists was to find a method of transmitting messages over long distances without the need for wires. That dream became reality in 1901 when Gugliellmo Marconi and two assistants stood on a hill in Newfoundland and listened carefully to their receiver. Faintly they heard the Morse code

?dot-dot-dot,? the letter s. the signal had traveled 1,700 miles from Cornwall, England, and it represented the first successful wireless transmission. This success led Marconi to form Marconi Wireless Telegraphy Company. It was not until the Titanic disaster in 1912, however, that wireless transmissions became commercially profitable. As the Titanic was sinking, the ship?s radio operator transmitted distress signals over his wireless telegraph. A passing ship, the Carpathia, which sped to the Titanic?s location and rescued 700 of the 2,200 people aboard, picked up the signals. Shortly after this disaster, most maritime nations required wireless telegraphs on all large ships. The Marconi experiment eventually led to the development of the radio. On an evening in November, 1920,

radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, went on the air with the first live radio broadcast. By 1922, 564 radio stations were on the air. Today, thousands of radio stations broadcast our favorite music, news, weather, and sports information . As important as it was, the impact of the transmission of sounds by wire and by wireless methods seems minor, when the effect of television, the device that permits the transmission of both sounds and images. In 1926 J.L. Baird, working with the British Broadcasting Company (BBC), became the first person to transmit a television picture, and in 1936 the world?s first television service was introduced . By 1948, twenty television stations were on the air. The first color television service began in the United States in 1954 .

Sociologist James K. Martin believes ? The impact of television is legendary and has totally changed the way American families live? . Modern telecommunications rely on modern technology and one of the most important elements of that technology is the computer. Today?s computer industry is moving with great momentum. Most schools are equipped to teach computer skills, and it is no longer rare for a student to come to first grade with a basic understanding of computers gained from the family?s personal computer . In 1930 an American electrical scientist, Vannevar Bush, constructed the first analog computer . However, the person credited with developing the first digital computer is Howard Aiken of Harvard University, who completed his project in 1944 . Analog signals are a

constant flow of information, whereas digital signals are a series of short bursts of information. Historian Mark Halls says, ?most historians point to ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) as the real beginning of computer technology? . Engineers at the University of Pennsylvania built this giant computer in 1946. ENIAC utilized vacuum tubes to control computer functions. The concept of storing programs in a computers memory is credited to John van Neumann, an American mathematician. It was in 1951 that the developers of ENIAC constructed Univac I, which became the first computer to be mass-produced . The traditional U.S. postal service is not oriented to meet needs for instant information access, so many mailboxes have become electronic. Electronic messages can

be sent any hour of the day or night using a computer, a modem, and a telephone. These electronic messages may be read, filed, stored, erased, printed, and rerouted. A computer used in conjunction with the telephone line and a television set allows homeowners to view merchandise, compare prices, and do electronic shopping. No longer are bank customers dependent on bankers? hours to withdraw money or to obtain account information . Many school libraries have a new reference resource, an electronic encyclopedia. Libraries connect to electronic encyclopedias with personal computers. Facts can be read on the screen or sent to the printer. Through the use of telecommunications, the opportunity to access vast amounts of information located in large commercial data bases are beyond