Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood Essay Research — страница 2

  • Просмотров 328
  • Скачиваний 12
  • Размер файла 16

essential feature of an Adjustment Disorder is the development of clinically significant emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to an identifiable psychological stressor or stressors . . . The stressor may be a single event (e.g., termination of a romantic relationship), or there may be multiple stressors (e.g., marked business difficulties and marital problems). Stressors may be recurrent (e.g., associated with seasonal business crises) or continuous (e.g., living in a crime-ridden neighborhood). Stressors may affect a single individual, an entire family, or a larger group or community (e.g., as in a natural disaster). Some stressors may accompany specific developmental events (e.g., going to school, leaving the parental home, getting married, becoming a parent, failing to

attain occupational goals, retirement). The symptoms must develop within 3 months after the onset of the stressors . . . and must resolve within 6 months of the termination of the stressor (p.623). Research studies support the DSM-IV information on some of the causes of Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (Snyder, Strain, & Wolf, 1990; Roden & Voshart, 1986). Roden and Voshart (1986) stated in their study “Adjustment Disorders . . . are maladaptive reactions to an identifiable psychosocial stressor occurring within 3 months after the onset of the stressor. Physical illness is a common precipitant of an Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood” (p.700). The DSM-IV provides clinicians with a wealth of information on Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood. It

describes the causes as psychosocial stressors, and the parameters they must meet. It also describes the affect as “the predominant manifestation of symptoms such as depressed mood, tearfulness or feelings of hopelessness” (p.623). Once clinicians have decided a client meets the criteria for the diagnosis, they only need to identify the best treatment approach. Treatment approaches: effective methods Aaron T. Beck (cited in Corsini & Wedding, 1989) developed cognitive therapy during his research of depression. He defined three fundamental concepts in cognitive therapy; collaborative empiricism, socratic dialogue and guided discovery. These fundamental concepts have proven to be successful for Beck, in his treatment of depression (p.302). Since Beck’s development of

cognitive therapy, hundreds of research studies have been conducted comparing the various treatment approaches used for treating depression, including pharmacotherapy. In two studies pharmacotherapy was compared to cognitive therapy. In one study the results indicated that pharmacotherapy was as effective as cognitive therapy (Murphy, Simons, Wetzel & Lustman, 1984), while in the other study results showed that cognitive therapy was more effective (Kovacs, Rush, Beck & Hollon, 1981). In conducting their review of various treatment methods, researchers even looked at gender differences. What they found was more women pursue therapy than men (Frank, Capenter & Kupfer, 1988). However, both men and women respond similarly to cognitive behavior therapy (Thase, Reynolds

III, Frank, Simons, McGeary, Fasiczka, Garamoni, Jennings & Kupfer, 1994). To date cognitive and behavioral therapies are the methods identified as the most effective in treating various depressive states including Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (Gotlib & Colby, 1987; Marsella, Hirschfeld & Katz, 1987; Shaffer, Shapiro, Sank & Coghlan, 1981; Thase & Wright, 1991; Paykel, 1988; Thase, Reynolds III, Frank, Simons, McGeary, Fasiczka, Garamoni, Jennings & Kupfer, 1994). Conclusion Research studies have shown that the degree of depression demonstrated by individuals can vary from normal moods of sadness, To extreme psychotic episodes that involve suicidal behavior. Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood as identified in the DSM-IV, is a mild

depressive reaction to stress (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). The DSM-IV not only provides clinicians with the necessary information to identify and properly diagnose Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, it also provides incite into the causes and affects of the disorder. Research studies have compared various treatment methods for treating depression. The results indicate that cognitive behavior therapy is the most effective in treating depressive disorders including Adjustment disorder with Depressed Mood. References American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition DSM-VI. Washington,DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Andresen, N.C., & Hoenk, P.R., (1982) The predictive value of adjustment