Adhd On Child Intelligence Essay Research Paper

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Adhd On Child Intelligence Essay, Research Paper Running Head: ADHD ON INTELLIGENCESocial and Bio-genetic Influencesof Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderon Child Intelligence The subject of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has undergone intense research in the past decade. Much of this is rooted in the fact that approximately 5% of children are affected with the disorder. Children with ADHD are identified as having increased behavioral difficulties because of excessive motor activities, poor self regulation and inattentiveness (Dulkan et al., 1997). It has been found that as many as 30% of children inflicted with ADHD have learning disabilities with academic underachievement becoming a common correlate. Since these children do not meet the expectations of

society and their learning environment they are usually met with anger, punishment, and rejection. In turn these children develop a low-self esteem and low levels of motivation (Morgan, 1997). The etiology of ADHD is still a mystery to researchers. Within the field there are many correlates to biological (genetic) and social causes. The present paper seeks to explore current research through investigating the social and bio-genetic influence of ADHD on child intelligence. Testing and treatments of those with ADHD will also be discussed. In accordance with Dulcan et al. (1997) ADD, ADD-H, ADHD, although not identical, will be considered interchangeably due to similarity. Characteristics and Testing of ADHD Intelligence Even though ADHD occurs in people of every intelligence, a

majority of children affected experience academic problems. These children may have specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, or may have multiple learning problems (Beiderman et al., 1993). In a study by MacLeod et al. (1996) comparing ADHD children with those unaffected, those with the disorder performed significantly worse than the others. Learning disabilities can be said to arise from attentional difficulties in the classroom setting. Many of these difficulties occur in tasks where listening and time is a factor. Reading disabilities have also been found as a result of ADHD (Millberger et al., 1991). Even though there is a higher prevalence of boys and those with low intelligence diagnosed, others with ADHD are impaired as well. Results have found that girls with

this disorder face greater intellectual impairment, especially with picture vocabulary tasks, than boys or control girls (Seidman et al., 1997). There is also significant findings that the level of intelligence affects ADHD children in different ways. More specifically, those with both ADHD and normal to high intelligence are more prone to accidents, and have a smaller number of steady friends. Children who were identified with low intelligence and ADHD were found to have more behavioral and emotional problems in their adolescence. Long term studies have found that the outcome of these children was continued academic problems and school failures (Aman et al., 1996). However, there is suggestion ADHD children show greater artistic ability when writing or drawing slowly and

precisely (Morgan, 1997). Testing the intelligence of ADHD involves a number of measures. Psychoeducational testing is used to assess intellectual ability and to search for learning disabilities. Tests such as the Wechler Intelligence Scale are used for intelligence testing, yet, much debate exists because of the need to change the test to meet the child’s attention deficits (Braswell, 1991). A new intelligence test has been created by Naglieri (1997) called the Cognitive Assessment System to help diagnose and measure ADHD intelligence. This test is based on the premise that traditional tests don’t measure processes such as planning and attention, which is essential in testing and detecting ADHD students. There is inconsistent data for the use of computerized tests of