Adhd Essay Research Paper Emotionally HandicappedBehavior DisordersAttention — страница 3

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increased hyperactivity, and tics arealso possible side effects of stimulant drug use but are less common(Phelan, 1996). Antidepressants are less frequently used but work in some cases. The most common are Norpramin or Pertofrane, Tofranil, Elavil, andProzac. These medications are primarily for people that did notrespond well to stimulants or has depression or anxiety in addition toADHD (Barkley, 1995). Like stimulant drugs, the antidepressants alsoalter the chemicals in the brain to modify behavior. Typically thesedrugs are not taken for more than two or three years due to build up oftolerance (Barkley, 1995). Possible side effects associated withantidepressants are also common with many other medications. Theyare dry mouth, increased blood pressure and pulse, nausea,drowsiness,

and slowing of intracardiac conduction (Phelan, 1996). Clonidine is also a medication used to treat people with ADHD. Clonidine is a hypertensive usually used to treat high blood pressure(Phelan, 1996). The positive effects of this drug are that it doesn t wearoff quickly like a stimulant and it helps reduce motor activity. Clonidinealso seems to increase a child s level of tolerance for frustration andcooperation (Barkley, 1995). The most common side effect with thisdrug is drowsiness. Blood pressure should be monitored because it isa drug that lowers high blood pressure (Barkley, 1995). Neurological treatments are also available to treat ADHD. Amen(1995) refers to Brain SPECT Imaging to evaluate and treat ADHD. Using this imaging, he is able to determine blood flow patterns and

lobeactivity. After determining where the problems are in the brain, thedoctors are able to take a course of action (Amen, 1995). Sears and Thompson (1998) identify neurofeedback as atreatment for ADHD. This process is somewhat complex. It takes thebrain waves and translates them like an electroencephalogram. Thenthe feedback changes the brain activity. The following alternative methods are not scientifically proven andare less effective than previously stated methods but have worked onoccasion. Restricted diets and nutritional interventions work for somepeople with ADHD. Also, proper amounts of vitamins and mineralshelp people with ADHD. Medicines to correct inner ear problems,chiropractic adjustments, allergy treatments, and yeast infectiontreatments are also ways to help

people cope with thisdisability(Mediconsult, 1998). There is a wide range of strategies for people with ADHD to use tohelp make everyday life easier. Various strategies work for differentpeople in diverse settings. There are strategies for school, home andself-management. People often need to try several strategies to find theones that work best for them. Common examples of strategies for school is having materialpresented clearly, structure, and using multi-sensory learning andconcrete experiences. At home, common strategies are helping withorganization, effective commands, and constuctive punishment(Barkley, 1995). Self management strategies should include settinggoals, breaking down tasks into smaller parts, and reduction ofstimulation and distraction (Reif, 1998). Discussion

After researching ADHD, I found that the steps in the diagnosisand effective treatments are very vague and ambiguous. The authors Iresearched claimed that their own diagnosing process and treatmentswere the most effective. At times, their studies agree, but often theydon t all agree equivocally. This inconsistency is often seen allthroughout the special education field. The diagnosising process seems to have several similarities. Infact, Barkley and Phelan both listed the same six essential steps. Itwould be intersting to see how many professionals follow those sixsteps when diagnosing people with ADHD. It seems that everyone is puzzled on what the cause of ADHDmight be. The most recent research focuses on neurological problemsor heredity. I think that the cause may stem from

neurological problems. Heredity seems to be stretching a little bit. It sounds more like anexcuse rather than a case. For example if my grandfather s uncle had,then I might have it also. I am still perplexed by the issue of treating people with ADHD.The research has convinced me that there is not just one effectivetreatment but many. Every person with ADHD must be treated in a . thewat that is most effective for that particular person. Also, when thetreatment that is best is found, it may work for a limited time and then anew one has to be found. Overall, by doing this research, I ve answered a few of myquestions but more importantly preempted new ones to find anwers for. This topic has stimulated my thoughts to find out if other disabilities runinto the same problems with