Adhd Essay Research Paper Emotionally HandicappedBehavior DisordersAttention

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Adhd Essay, Research Paper Emotionally Handicapped/Behavior Disorders:Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Introduction It seems that diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder isbecoming more prevalent among children and adults. I questionedwhat has caused this increase in number of people effected by thisdisorder. The intent of this paper is to examine that question. I intendto view what Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is, how it isdiagnosed, what causes it, and what are the available and effectivetreatments. (I have a personal reason as well, four people close to andmyself exibit the characteristics of Attention Deficit HyperactivityDisorder.) There is a problem with ambiguity and inconsistency inmany areas of special education and this is an area

where thevagueness can be overwhelming and frustrating. Review Definition Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is most commonlyassociated with children, but adults can also be affected by ADHD. TheDSM-IV criteria for ADHD are as follows. First the person must eitherhave signs of inattention or hyperactivity that last for six months and to adegree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmentallevel. Second, some of the symptoms that cause the impairment werepresent before the age of seven. Third, some of the symptoms must bepresent in two or more settings. Fourth, there must be evidence that it iseffecting social, academic, or occupational functioning. The last criteriais that it does not occur during the course of any Psychotic Disorder and can not be

diagnosed as a Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder,Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder. Signs and Symptoms Signs and symptoms vary with each person. The signs andsymptoms discussed will be those that are most commonly observed byprofessionals and parents in both educational and social settings. These signs and symptoms can be categorized into inattention,hyperactivity, impulsivity, emotional, and positive characteristics. Reif (1998) identified the most common sign of inattention ishaving trouble sustaining attention. Other signs include failure to payclose attention to detail, making careless mistakes, loses things easily,and having trouble with organization. Also distracted by outside stimuli,doesn t follow through with tasks, doesn t seem to listen to what is

beingsaid to him/her. An example in an educational setting is after given a setof four directions the student may complete two of them. According to Reif (1998), the most common sign ofhyperactivity-impulsivity is not being able to sit still. More specifically,hyperactivity signs may consist of restlessness, frequent unnecessary movement, and constant movement. Other signs include veryenergetic, intruding others personal space, fidgeting, inappropriatenoises, and squirms in seat. An example of a student displayinghyperactivity would be the student that after playing with his pencil whilesitting on his knees, gets up to walk around the room making noise,then goes back to his chair and slouches. This would be done all in amatter of minutes. The signs of impulsivity include

excessive orinappropriate talking, inability to wait, hurries through tasks, disruptive,and often interrupts (Reif, 1998). An impulsive student would shout outan answer as soon as he knows it and will not raise his hand or wait tobe called on. Emotional signs and symptoms are not part of the DSM-IV criteriabut is critical area to address. These signs and symptoms may includeirritability, quick tempered, low self-esteem, and immature social skills. People with ADHD also display moodiness, over stimulation,aggression, and frustration (Reif, 1998). There are many traits associated with ADHD that are positive. These traits are often overlooked. People with ADHD are often creative,innovative, resourceful, observant, and inventive. They are usuallyhighly verbal, inquisitive, tenacious,