Adhd Essay Research Paper Attention Deficit DisorderKam

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Adhd Essay, Research Paper Attention Deficit Disorder Kam Bisel Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a problem that affects 5% to 10% of all children. ADD affect more children than any other childhood problems except asthma. It is estimated to be the largest single cause for first referrals to child guidance clinics throughout the country, making up as many as 40% of those cases. Many ADD cases are not diagnosed because the problem most often does not show in the doctors office. Current estimates suggest that approximately 50 to 65% of the children with ADD will have symptoms of the disorder as adolescents and adults. Although ADD has just recently been discovered and there is still relatively little known about it. In 1902, George Frederick Still believed the dilemma of the

problem child was linked to a biological defect inherited from an injury at birth and not the result of the environment. Through 1930-40’s stimulant drugs were first used to successfully treat many behavior problems due in part by Still’s hypothesis. In 1960, Stella Chess researched in the field by writing about the “hyperactive child syndrome.” She took Still’s hypothesis further stating that the resulting behavior problems stem from a biological cause, although it is linked to a genetic inheritance rather then a birth defect from an injury. Finally, in 1980, the syndrome was named Attention Deficit Disorder, due in large part to Virginia Douglas’s work to find accurate ways to diagnose it (Hallowell 2).This is currently how it stands in the axis two of the DSM-IV

today, with the addition of a new category Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and there sub types. Most scientist now believe that an abnormality in brain chemistry could be to blame for the symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder. The frontal lobes of the brain are believed to be responsible for the regulation of behavior and attention. They receive information from the lower brain, which regulates arousal and screens incoming messages from within and outside of the body. The limbic system which is a group of related nervous system structures located in the midbrain and linked to emotions and feelings then sends the messages to the frontal lobes. Finally, the frontal lobes are suspected to be the site of working memory, the place where information about the immediate

environment is considered for memory storage, planning, and future-directed behavior. Scientist believe the activity in the frontal lobes is depressed in people with ADD. Studies also show, a decrease in the ability of the Attention Deficit Disorder brain to use glucose, the body’s main source of energy, leading to slower and less efficient activity. Neurotransmitter provide the connection between one nerve cell and another. It is also now suspected that people with Attention Deficit Disorder have a chemical imbalance of a class of neurotransmitter called catecholamine. Dopamine, helps to form a pathway between the motor center of the midbrain and the frontal lobes, as well as a pathway between the limbic system and the frontal lobes. Without enough dopamine and related

catecholamine, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, the frontal lobes are under stimulated and thus unable to perform their complex functions efficiently. Attention Deficit Disorder is primarily considered a genetic disorder. Which is why it is labeled a axis two in the DSM-IV. Studies show that 20-30% of all hyperactive children have at least one parent with ADD. However, not all cases of ADD are genetically linked. Some studies show that a small percentage of ADD cases were influenced by smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs during pregnancy. Exposure to toxins, such as lead, may also alter the brain chemistry and function. Both of these issues are cause for concern for the at-risk population. ADD generally affects males more often than females, in a 3:1 ratio. Because