Adhd Essay Research Paper ADHD I INTRODUCTION

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Adhd Essay, Research Paper ADHD I INTRODUCTION Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or Hyperactivity (ADHD), disorder beginning in childhood, characterized by a persistent inability to sit still, focus attention on specific tasks, and control impulses. Children with ADHD show these behaviors more frequently and severely than other children of the same age. A person with ADHD may have difficulty with school, work, friendships, or family life. ADHD has also been referred to as attention-deficit disorder, hyperkinesis, minimal brain dysfunction, and minimal brain damage. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common mental disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 5 percent of school-age children. The disorder occurs at least four times more often in boys

than in girls. Although the symptoms sometimes disappear with age, ADHD can persist into adolescence and adulthood. Some estimates show that up to 2 percent of adults have ADHD. II DIAGNOSIS Diagnosing ADHD is difficult because most children are inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive at least some of the time. In diagnosing ADHD, experts use guidelines listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. These guidelines require that a child show behaviors typical of ADHD before the age of seven. The behaviors must last for at least six months, and must occur more frequently than in other children of the same age. The behaviors also must occur in at least two settings, such as classroom and home, rather than just at a single setting. Controversy exists over the

diagnosis of ADHD. Physicians in the United States diagnose the disorder more often than doctors elsewhere in the world. Critics regard this discrepancy as evidence that physicians and psychologists too often apply psychiatric labels to children who are naturally more active or simply nuisances to teachers and parents. III CHARACTERISTICS Children and adults with ADHD consistently show various degrees of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Inattention means that people with ADHD have difficulty keeping their minds on one thing. They may get bored with homework or other tasks after a few minutes, make careless mistakes, have trouble listening, and seem to daydream. However, children with ADHD sometimes can concentrate on and complete new or unusually interesting tasks.

Hyperactivity involves almost constant motion, as if driven by a motor. Children may squirm and fidget at their desks in school, get up often to roam around the room, constantly touch things, disturb other people, tap pencils, and talk constantly. ADHD also makes children unusually impulsive, so that they act before thinking. They may run into the street without looking, blurt out inappropriate comments in class, interrupt conversations, and be unusually clumsy or accident-prone. Children with ADHD often have severe learning problems because of their difficulties in paying attention, following instructions, and completing tasks. In addition, their disruptive, demanding behavior makes them unpopular with peers. Children with ADHD often receive constant criticism and correction

from teachers and parents, who believe the behavior, is intentional. The combination of negative feedback, poor academic achievement, and social problems may contribute to low self-esteem and other emotional problems. IV CAUSES Scientists do not know what causes ADHD. However, they have discredited many theories that once were widely accepted. One theory contended that ADHD resulted from minor head injuries or undetectable brain damage due to infections or complications during birth. Experts called ADHD “minimal brain damage” and “minimal brain dysfunction” when this theory was popular in the early 1970s. Another theory linked ADHD with consumption of refined sugar and food additives. Scientists questioned this theory when studies showed that few children with ADHD