Addiction Essay Research Paper In order to — страница 2

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normal rewards get replaced by the need to get the high produced form the acquisition of the drug. The rate at which this motivational toxicity develops depends on the type of drug, the way that it is administered and its psychological impact. (Pleasure and Addiction – Dr Tim Kirkham 2001) So the life of the addict becomes centred around receiving more drugs, so behavioural patters can be produced which would not normally be seen in an individual free of these craving, such as steeling and manipulation in the case of women – sometimes prostitution. We cannot also ignore the risks associated with taking these drugs, poor diet often leads to ill health and increased susceptibility to ailments. Unsterile equipment used for taking or injecting the drugs leaves the user more open

to catching such diseases as hepatitis or HIV, and without proper regulations centring around those of these drugs a risk can be formed surrounding the question of the purity of the drugs themselves which could lead to overdose. If a heroin user overdoses, respiration is slowed, which causes coma, and eventually death. Addiction is more associated, however with a general deterioration of health and personality. There are many factors set to encourage an individual to take narcotic in the first place, relating to stress, personal problems or problems at work even sociocultural conditions. Narcotic dependency seems to be centred around an antisocial personality and other psychopathology. Chinlund (1969) studied the use of narcotics by women, he studied women in New York for a

period of seven years and found that that the user has three main goals; 1) A conscious wish to lose control of the drug usage so that she can blame her failures on the drug. 2) To blot out all sense of time, so that she can hide from things happening in her frustrating life situation. And 3) The need to deny cause and effect relationships in her life such as the relationship between sexual intercourse and pregnancy. ( Abnormal Psychology and Modern life- p440 – James Coleman – 1976) Drugs are often turned to as a means of alleviating anxiety and coping with problems caused by stress, until these principal issues are dealt with in our society there will always be drug usage and drug abuse. Aldous Huxley remarked; ‘ that humanity at large will ever be able to dispense with

artificial paradises seems very unlikely. Most men and women lead lives which at worse so painful, at the best so monotonous, poor and limited that the urge to escape, the longing to transcend themselves if only for a few minutes, is and always has been one of the principle appetites of the soul.’ This is a view shared by many people, who seem that drug usage does not always lead to addiction, and indeed, even if it does lead to addiction, that addiction, does not always bring about the demise of the person both physically and socially of it is able to be controlled. However although attitudes are changing towards drug usage, especially among the more affluent, we can still see the devastation drug addiction can cause, especially as those who feel the need to use drugs are

generally of the frame of mind which leaves them more susceptible to their consequences. Scientists are now searching for ways to block some drugs from producing their effect on the brain. Cocaine works by blocking a pump which regulates dopamine´s messaging. It is hoped that new drugs will attach to the transporter and make it ignore the cocaine but continue with its regular functioning, this appears be working with rats and the treatment is now being tested in humans.