Add Essay Research Paper Chris Brown English

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Add Essay, Research Paper Chris Brown English 102: section 6 May 3, 1996 ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER Approximately 3-5% of all American children have an Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a leading cause of school failure and under-achievement. ADD characteristics often arise in early childhood. As many as 50% of children with ADD are never diagnosed. Boys significantly outnumber girls, though girls are more likely to be undiagnosed with ADD. “ADD is not an attention disorder, but a disorder of impulse control ( Seminar notes Barkeley) .” Characteristics of Attention Deficit Disorder can include : Fidgeting with hands or feet , difficulty remaining seated, awaiting turns in games, following through on instructions , shifting from one uncompleted task to another,

difficulty playing quietly, interrupting conversations and intruding into other children’s games, appearing to be not listening to what is being said, doing things that are dangerous without thinking about the consequences. Most scientist now believe that a brain dysfunction or abnormality in brain chemistry could be to blame for the symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder. The frontal lobes of the brain are thought to be most responsible for the regulation of behavior and attention. They receive information from the lower brain, which regulated arousal and screens incoming messages from within and outside of the body. The limbic system , a group of related nervous system structures located in the midbrain and linked to emotions and feelings, also sends messages to the frontal

lobes. Finally, the frontal lobes are suspected to be the site of working memory, the place where information about the immediate environment is considered for memory storage, planning, and future-directed behavior. Scientist believe the activity in the frontal lobes is depressed in people with ADD. Studies show a decrease in the ability of the ADD brain to use glucose, the body’s main source of energy, leading to slower and less efficient activity. Neurotransmitters provide the connection between one nerve cell and another. In essence, neurotransmitters allow electrical impulses to pass across synapses from one neuron to another. It is now suspected that people with Attention Deficit Disorder have a chemical imbalance of a class of neurotransmitters called catecholamines.

Dopamine, helps to form a pathway between the motor center of the midbrain and the frontal lobes, as well as a pathway between the limbic system and the frontal lobes. Without enough dopamine and related catecholamines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, the frontal lobes are under stimulated and thus unable to perform their complex functions efficiently. Attention Deficit Disorder is strongly considered genetically inherited, however, not all cases of ADD may be genetically linked. . Studies have shown that 20-30% of all hyperactive children have a least one parent with ADD. The environment is a big influence on a child during pregnancy and after. Some studies show that a small percentage of ADD cases were influenced by smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs during

pregnancy. Exposure to toxins, such as lead, may also alter the brain chemistry and function. If you suspect that you are suffering from Attention Deficit Disorder you will need to discuss it with your medical doctor. In most cases the doctor will recommend that you visit a psychologist for an evaluation. The psychologist is professionally trained in human behavior and will be able to provide counseling and testing in areas related to mental health. The psychologist is not able to prescribe medication to help you, but may send you to a psychiatrist to prescribe and monitor medication. A neurologist may be consulted in order to rule out neurological conditions causing your symptoms. Your doctor will gather information about your past and present difficulties, medical history ,