Adam Smith Vs John Maynard Keynes Essay

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Adam Smith Vs. John Maynard Keynes Essay, Research Paper Economics was a subject of which few thought about consciously until the eighteenth century. It is true that since the beginning of time people have used economics, but it was seldom given any thought. When a caveman traded a buffalo for a new club he did not have the knowledge that he affected the entire caveman economy and their way of life. Adam Smith is accredited as being the most influential economist of the eighteenth century and for all practical purposes one of the first economists that anyone has ever heard of. Ironically, Adam Smith s great economic break-through is that no one should worry about the economy. The economy will take care of itself because it is driven by self-interest. Given that greed is a

quality that drives just about everyone, this should not be a problem. Society has needs and wants, so the public will always demand goods. It is up to producers to supply the public with these goods and services. The goods that are demanded will be produced more and other products will not. It is the economic variation to natural selection. Competition in the market place will drive down prices and raise quality and efficiency. There is no need for government regulations because the market will always correct itself, eventually. The only elements needed are greedy profit driven producers and stupid people to buy their products. Adam Smith believed the economy would always adjust itself during an inflation or recession. During prosperity, consumers will have confidence in the

economy and this will bring on inflation and cause prices to rise due to the increase in spending the demand in goods. When the prices rise too high, then consumers will stop buying the goods. Slowly the prices will fall as the demand decreases. When the prices drop to affordable levels, consumers will buy the goods again and the economy will be stable. Unemployment will act much like the prices in the situation. Unemployment will be low while consumer confidence is high. Once the prices rise to an inflationary level, companies will lay off people in order to make up for the over production of the goods that are not being sold at the high prices. Once the prices stabilize, the companies will be looking to higher workers and increase production. Adam Smith believed that the

government should only tax a necessary amount as not to create a deficit or surplus. The government should also spend only what it has. This would reduce the worry of government deficits, which many are concerned. The government would not keep a surplus either, which would keep the money in pockets of the citizens and enable them to put the money back into the market by spending it. Adam Smith was in favor of a progressive tax, that is each person gets taxed in proportion to their income. Smith also advocated a constant tax in which there were no tax cuts or hikes. That way the public would know how much they will have to spend and could balance their own budgets accordingly. With the invisible hand, as long as consumers keep buying goods the economy will stay in check. Consumers

will buy what they want at prices they feel are acceptable. Companies will produce these goods at the lowest possible price and in quantities based on public interest. According To Adam Smith, the economy does not have to be intervened in because it works on its own merits. It will always balance itself because the consumers will react accordingly in case of inflation or recession. As long as people are motivated by profits, the invisible hand will guide the economy. After all, people knew little about economics for centuries and they all survived. In the twentieth century, the world had a new viewpoint on economic policies. These ideas were brought by John Maynard Keynes. His ideas were contradictory to those of Adam Smith. Keynes was in favor of government intervention to keep