Abstract Bow For War In The Byzantine

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Abstract: Bow For War In The Byzantine World Essay, Research Paper PERI TOXEIAS. BOW FOR WAR IN THE BYZANTINE WORLD AND IN THE LATE-ANTIQUITY. BY GIOVANNI AMATUCCIO ABSTRACT. The study is oriented to research the ancient writhed sources of archery. The focus is pointed on the Byzantine Civilisation, where we can found a great tradition of archery and , at same time, a great inclination to the literary studies. This two factors have furnished us possibility to obtain some archery writhed sources, that not exist in other ancient civilisations. The age in examination go from the late antiquity to the first Middle Age (III – X cent.) and the scenery is the central-eastern Mediterranean area: region dominated from presence of Roman Eastern Empire. In this co-ordinates space-time

we following the evolution of Byzantine archery in Warfare with examination of literary and iconographyc sources. The firsts are represented to some pieces of Latin an Greek texts, where the more important are the little treatise Peri Toxeias (”About the Bowshooting”) writhed in the VI century by an Anonymous Byzantine author. This treatise is surly the most ancient document about archery that is survived: thousand years before the Toxophilus and many years before the Arab archery books. The opera is writhed for the drilling of Byzantine soldiers to the use of bow and is a little but complete manual about the shooting techniques and practice for the war. The other fragments are : + a text of Julius Africanus (III century) about the arrows speed s calculation, an unusual

ancient system that come to measure the exact speed of an arrow, with an accuracy not inferior at modern technologic methods. + an extract from Vegetius (Latin writer of IV century) about the archery drilling of the Roman soldiers in the last days of the Empire. + fragment of De Bello Persico by the Byzantine historian Procopius about the description of mounted archers of his time and their superiority in comparison with ancient omeric archers. + fragments from two tactical Byzantine manuals, writhed in the VII and X centuries and ascribed, one to the Emperor Mauritius, and the other to Emperor Leo VI the Savant. The books are complete manuals about the strategy, tactic and organisation of Byzantine Army, hear we have quoted the fragments relative to the equipment and drilling of

footed and mounted archers . The study of iconographyc sources complete the panorama offering a picture of bow s typology , that is summarised through many tables and illustrations. The two appendix give a complete listing of all archers unities in the Roman Army at end of the Empire; and the schemes of archers battle s order in the Byzantine Army with special reference to the problem of bow s range. INDEX Preface Historical portrait Texts presentation Iconography Sources fragments: 1. Julius Africanus 2. Flavius Renatus Vegetius (De Re Militari) 3. Anonymus Bizantinus (Peri Toxeias) 4. Procopius Caesariensis (De bello persico) 5. Pseudo-Mauritius (Strategikon) 6. Leo VI Imperator (Taktika) Comment Appendix 1. Notitia dignitatum 2. The archers order s battle and problem of bows

range 3. Biographies + Notes + Glossary +