Abraham Moslow Essay Research Paper IntroductionThe theorist — страница 3

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and metapathologies Maslow also approach the problem of what self-actualization is to talk about the special, driving needs (B-needs, of course) of the self-actualizers. They need the following in their lives in order to be happy: Truth, rather than dishonesty. Goodness, rather than evil. Beauty, not ugliness or vulgarity. Unity, wholeness, and transcendence of opposites, not arbitrariness or forced choices. Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life. Uniqueness, not bland uniformity. Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness, inconsistency, or accident. Completion, rather than incompleteness. Justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness. Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity. Richness, not environmental impoverishment. Effortlessness, not strain. Playfulness, not

grim, humorless, drudgery. Self-sufficiency, not dependency. Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness. Maslow believes that much of the what is wrong with the world comes down to the fact that very few people really are interested in these values — not because they are bad people, but because they haven’t even had their basic needs taken care of. When a self-actualizer doesn’t get these needs fulfilled, they respond with metapathologies; a list of problems as long as the list of metaneeds. He summarized it by saying that, when forced to live without these values, the self-actualizer develops depression, despair, disgust, alienation, and a degree of cynicism. Maslow hoped that his efforts at describing the self-actualizing person would eventually lead to a “periodic

table” of the kinds of qualities, problems, pathologies, and even solutions characteristic of higher levels of human potential. Over time, he devoted increasing attention, not to his own theory, but to humanistic psychology and the human potential movement. Toward the end of his life, he inaugurated what he called the fourth force in psychology: Freudian and other “depth” psychologies constituted the first force; Behaviorism was the second force; His own humanism, including the European existentialists, was the third force. The fourth force was the transpersonal psychologies which, taking their cue from eastern philosophies, investigated such things as meditation, and higher levels of consciousness and even Para psychological phenomena. Conclusion With the research that I

have done on Maslow I place myself within his theories as far as my life goes. I have seen that I can’t move on to higher levels until I see the lower ones met. When achieved I feel empowered or strength with a sense of accomplishment and ready to attack the next level. I see it as climbing a ladder filled with experiences that in turn help me to guide my own children in speeding their own process to achieve this hierarchy of needs. I find Moslows’ theories very inspiring, they have helped me to be more open and more understanding of those around me whom I saw as unkind people. In reality they are just in their way in achieving this process of the hierarchy of needs. Sometimes in this process we can feel frustrated in having experienced a sense of ecstasy and now faced with

even a greater challenge in the beginning of a new level. Just as Maslow’s parents were uneducated immigrants from Russia, my own parents were immigrants from Mexico who themselves did not have an opportunity for an education. Maslow’s parents pushed him hard in his studies and of course he himself falls as a self-actualizer. He has contributed this knowledge to the world which is available to me and anyone else and with the greatest gift my parents have given me; a love for education, I hope to at least touch some one’s life with this gift my parents have made available to me. Maslow, Abraham H. (1968). Towards a Psychology of Being. New York: Litton Educational Publishing Inc. Allen, Ben P. (2000). Personality Theories, Development, Growth and Diversity. Massachusetts:

Allyn & Bacon A Pearson Education Company. Morant, Ricardo B. (1987). The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol.13, p.265 Unknown Writer, (1995). Britannica Encyclopedia Vol. 7, p.911 Schroeder, Beverly Allred, (1992). Human Growth and Development. Minnesota: West Publishing Company