4 capitals of Great Britain

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Contents Introduction. London Roman London (Londinium) Saxon London ( Lundenwick) London in the Middle Age London in the 16th and 17th centuries The 18th century London The Clock Tower of Wrens St.Paul’s Cathedral Edinburgh Hereford Mappa Mundi, featuring Edinburgh in 1300 An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the West Cardiff Origins of the Name Medieval Cardiff Owain Glyndŵr Black Gold Trsansforms Cardiff Double Birtday Home of the Daleks World’s First Fair Trade Capital Famous Sons and Daughters Sporting History Belfast Belfast in the 17th century Belfast in the 18th century Samson and Goliath The City Hall During Construction Recent history Conclusion Introduction Great Britain or United Kingdom, officially United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, a

parliamentary monarchy in northwestern Europe. The kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, comprising England, Scotland, and Wales; and Northern Ireland, an integral component of the kingdom, occupying part of the island of Ireland. The Isle of Man and the Channel Islands in the English Channel are not part of the United Kingdom; they are direct dependencies of the British crown and have substantial internal self-governing powers. The United Kingdom lies entirely within the British Isles. The total area of the kingdom is 244,111 sq km (94,252 sq mi). From 1801, when Great Britain and Ireland were united, to 1922, when the Irish Free State was established, the kingdom was officially designated the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Great Britain, along with other

independent countries and their dependencies and several associated states, is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. The capital and largest city of Great Britain is London. So, the history of 4 capitals situated in Great Britain can tell us a lot about the country itself. LONDON London is the capital of the United Kingdom, its economic, political and cultural center. It is one of the world's most important ports and one of the largest cities in the world. London with its suburbs has a population of about 11 million people. London has been a capital for nearly a thousand years. Many of its ancient buildings still stand. But once London was a small Roman town of the north bank of the Thames. ROMAN LONDON (LONDINIUM) The Romans founded London about 50 AD. Its name is derived from

the Celtic word Londinios, which means the place of the bold one. After they invaded Britain in 43 AD the Romans built a bridge across the Thames. They later decided it was an excellent place to build a port. The water was deep enough for ocean going ships but it was far enough inland to be safe from Germanic raiders. Around 50 AD Roman merchants built a town by the bridge. So London was born. The early settlement at London did not have stone walls but there may have been a ditch and an earth rampart with a wooden palisade on top. Then in 61 AD Queen Boudicca led a rebellion against the Romans. Her army marched on London. No attempt was made to defend London. Boudicca burned London but after her rebellion was crushed it was rebuilt. Rich people built houses of stone or brick with

tiled roofs but most people lived in wooden houses. By the end of the 2nd century stonewall was erected around London. The wall was 20 feet high. Outside the wall was a ditch. In the middle of the 3rd century 20 bastions were added to the walls (a bastion was a semi-circular tower projecting from the wall). The population of Roman London rose to perhaps 45,000, which seems small to us but it was the largest town in Britain. In the centre of London was the forum. This was a square with shops and public buildings arranged around it. The most important building in the forum was the basilica or 'town hall’, which was 500 feet long and 70 feet high. In London there were brickworks, potteries and glassworks. There were also donkey powered mills for grinding grain to flour and